Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IOT) is a term that refers to digital devices that link to the internet. However, many definitions of IoT include technically wrong passive things such as radio frequency identification (RFID) tags found within passports. IoT is, at its core, a movement to use network infrastructure (from Wi-Fi to the cloud) to share data and extend technology to sense and act in the real world.

IoT units installed increased from around 5 billion in 2016 to 10 billion in 2018, and 22 billion by 2020, equating to about 2.7 devices per human on the planet. If current trends continue, we may see well over 500 billion units by 2030, or around 75 IoT devices for every man, woman, and child.
Successful IoT uses technology to improve outcomes, but failing initiatives try to integrate technology without demonstrating concrete benefits. Smart thermostats have a clear value proposition: they save energy and consequently money. To comprehend the IoT world, we will concentrate on the large goals we want to achieve, beginning with microlevel work and progressing to macro-personal IoT devices such as wearables, smart homes, interconnected smart industries, smart cities, a smart world, and beyond.

Wearables, Health

Wearables are a category of the Internet of things, where you are the “thing” being “interneted”. You can wear smartwatches on your wrist, smart pendants around your neck, clothing via smart fabrics, smart shoes, glasses, earplugs, as well as clippable devices from pedometers to cameras and microphones. Many wearable gadgets are designed to track steps, heart rate, and blood oxygen levels, which are gathered by enthusiasts who refer to their approach as the quantified self. The consumer health sector is currently the largest for wearables, although many off-the-shelf wearables are increasing in areas previously dominated by medical equipment, such as detecting abnormal cardiac fibrillation or blood oxygen levels.

A smart watch, such as the Apple Watch, Samsung Gear, or Fitbit, is the most common general-purpose wearable used by the ordinary consumer. Smart watches are also extensions of smartphones, replete with smaller versions of apps, outside of the health sensor sector.

Ingestibles are a new subcategory of wearables that is gaining popularity. Ankon Medical Technologies developed a camera pill that can watch and measure inside the human body, and Three Square Market made news by microchipping forty employee volunteers and allowing them to use the implants as ID badges for work and shopping. Biohackers, a cross section of Makers and the body modification subculture, are an extreme type of quantitative self-enthusiasts that implant equipment such as microchips and sensors beneath their skin.

Wearables come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Smart bike helmets, sleep and posture monitors, and bionic legs with surgically implanted neural interfaces that allow patients to sense walking, impact, and knee bending are all available. Many of these wearables are linked to smartphones and share data via platforms such as Apple Health Kit, Google Health, and Nike+

Let’s dig into what makes the landscape of Internet of Things and what we can do with it.
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Smart homes

People's first encounters with IoT devices are frequently connected smart houses. Whether it's an Amazon Alexa voice-activated device, a Nest smart thermostat, or a Ring video doorbell, an increasing number of customers are choosing smart IoT devices in the house to simplify some element of their lives. By 2020, smart thermostats will have saved Americans well over $100 million each year. Smart security solutions are lowering the cost and making top-of-the-line, high-definition security cameras and equipment more accessible.

Many of these devices are linked together in a shared environment by centralized systems like Google Nest, Apple Home Kit, and Amazon Alexa. Voice-controlled chatbots, initiated by branded wake words like "Alexa" or "Hey Google," and followed by a verbal command that is transformed to text internally using natural language processing, are widely used to front these systems (NLP). Their growing popularity can be attributed to their extensive utility.

The smart home revolution, like wearables, is far-reaching. The list goes on and on: Eve Aqua home water controllers, Athena IoT security cameras, and iBaby baby monitors are just a few examples. The Ayi smart mirror, Kohler's Moxie shower head with speakers, and the Withings smart scale that tracks daily weight swings and calculates BMI are all available in the bathroom. The Samsung smart fridge and Tovala smart oven are located in the kitchen. The ChopBox smart cutting board with scales and SmartyPans, which track weight and temperature for efficient cooking with an app that makes suggestions, are great for aspiring chefs.

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)

A burgeoning Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) industry is focusing on enhancing a variety of industries, including manufacturing and logistics, agriculture, and the military. By 2030, the IIoT market could be worth $14 trillion, based on a projected 30 percent annual growth rate.

Large machinery used to mass-produce products are costly to purchase and operate, and unplanned malfunctions can result in a slew of issues, ranging from downtime to late orders to poor quality output. Unit health, also known as Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), is a simple domain for IIoT, with associated sensors providing a variety of data for each machine. Temperature data records can provide information for maintenance teams to be more reactive to breakdowns by providing measurements regarding, for example, the heat of a device falling outside of permitted range. However, as these devices get smarter, they'll start alerting operations teams to more preventive measures, and eventually, they'll be able to proactively, predictively, and prescriptively solve issues before they happen.

The Industrial Internet of Things is also finding a home in supply chains between the factory and the retail floor. Global logistics, which has hitherto been data-starved and governed by calendars and paper documents, is improving with real-time order tracking. The ability to track individual shipping containers with GPS in real time over the open oceans, led by companies like Maersk, lets businesses track orders more accurately. Companies like CargoSense take this a step further by offering IIoT devices that anyone can install to their shipments. These devices can collect data such as temperature and humidity levels and report on whether they are within acceptable parameters. They work as digital seals, ensuring that the cargo has not been tampered with. Quality, security, and compliance can all be improved using such devices in logistics.

IIoT devices may be deployed almost anywhere they are needed due to their modest scale costs. They can serve as auxiliary security by using hyperspectral cameras to watch a warehouse's grounds at night, give early flood forecasting by detecting ground moisture, or notify management to an empty break-room snack machine. IoT wooden pallets from CalAmp and Pallet Alliance can provide logistical transparency and low prices without requiring major changes to existing procedures.

Finally, POS systems are gaining traction in the retail sector. Consumers can use NFC systems like Apple or Samsung Pay to make payments with their phones, and retail staff are replacing huge POS systems with portable scanners and mobile credit card square devices. For the larger baskets of grocery stores, Caper’s Smart Cart’s scan items for checkout as you place them into the basket. However, these are only temporary solutions as retailers shift to more flexible self-service shopping systems, such as Amazon Go's totally touchless camera-based system, which we'll discuss soon. Let's take a break from retail for the time being and explore the larger world of smart cities.
Smart Cities, Smart Grids, Smart World

Cities are powerful because they are adaptive systems that are complicated. The majority of that adoption has been pushed by human brains and work up until now, but now there is a new adaptive component. Smart cities are projects that use IoT at scale to save costs, increase sustainability, and improve other elements of city life. They account for approximately a quarter of all IoT projects. Smart cities, like Masdar in Abu Dhabi, aren't strictly planned cities, but instead use IoT devices to improve vital services like transportation, energy usage, and safety. The remodeled historic city of Seoul, South Korea, was one of the first smart cities.

Smart cities go through three stages of development. The city's isolated operations, such as transportation, the environment, and culture, are improved in the first phase. The second phase involves vertically integrating services to optimize operations using IoT, such as when Palo Alto outfitted its traffic lights with an artificial intelligence mesh network that allows them to adapt to changing traffic patterns. The final step unifies the vertical systems, resulting in holistic improvements across a variety of service areas. This third phase of Seoul's smart city project meant that all of the information worked together and was accessible through applications, allowing people to become smart users. While cities will grow at varying speeds, skipping phases is difficult, if not impossible.

In 2021, coal-fired power plants remained the world's primary electricity generators, contributing significantly to global climate change. While there are just a few places on the planet where coal can be mined, it can be transported almost anywhere and burned to generate local power generation. Low-carbon renewable energies such as geothermal, solar, and wind, on the other hand, can only be generated in certain locations. The energy must be transmitted somewhere else, which has proven to be challenging in history.

A smart grid that mainly relies on IoT will be necessary to track, manage, and transfer electricity in an efficient and even predictive manner if we are ever to achieve a majority use of renewable energy. Through the Industrial Internet Consortium, GE is a leader in this industry, and it has made significant investments in IIoT for generators such as windmills and smart grid technology. Cities can be outfitted to consume less electricity in addition to energy mobility. We can optimize energy use at the corporate, local, and national levels, similar to the Nest for smart homes. This will be the key to establishing a circular economy that can be sustained.

John Waterson is the project leader for the Ocean of Things at the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The project plans to deploy 50,000 IoT sensors into the world's oceans over the next five years, with more planned in the future. Given that water covers more of the earth's surface than land, this will provide humanity with a significant boost in information about our planet. On the ground, FGR has developed a solar-powered Internet of Things (IoT) and data communications system to monitor phosphate mines in risky and remote desert regions. Temperature, moisture, and pressure gauges are included in these devices. Cumulocity IoT funnels this data into a cloud system, where it is linked with ambient sources like weather data. With the use of IoT devices deployed to track the state of industrial farms, the system can boost fertilizer supply and help stabilize global food crops with more rigorous tracking

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Combinatorial creativity and Ubiquitous Computing

Amazon Go is a Seattle concept store where customers sign in with their Amazon account. When a consumer grabs items off the shelf and exists with their bounty, their Amazon account is charged. There isn't a checkout lane, and there isn't any human interaction. To deploy Go, Amazon did not establish a new class of technology. It consists of a few off-the-shelf components such as cameras, 2D codes, and other sensors, as well as a lot of AI. Deep tech is defined by the ability to develop something new from a collection of scarcely accessible technologies. Thanks to the Internet of Things, the next decade will see a Cambrian explosion of new technological applications. All that is required is a collection of components as well as the combinatorial creativity to combine a subset of them in novel ways.

We can move toward ubiquitous computing, which has long been envisioned by science-fiction writers, thanks to this explosion of combinatorial invention. The idea is that once we are surrounded by smart things capable of measuring, acting on, and sharing information with one another, humans will be able to interact with their environment without having to consciously or deliberately issue commands to a specific gadget. We can walk into any room and ask, "What's going on in Tamil Nadu today?" and get live streaming video and stats from the closest relevant and capable device, be it on the wall or on smart glasses, rather than picking up a "remote control" to "turn on" a "Television" and changing to a channel to see a particular "show." In a world of voice activation, cheap smart walls, and AI assistants, we can walk into any room and ask,  We'll have arrived at a stage of technology design known as Calm tech when computer gadgets slip into the background and no longer compete for our attention.

The Internet of Things is where the data is. IoT is already revolutionizing how we live and work, and quietly altering the laws of industrial operations as a significant player in what's being called Industry 4.0, because it turns out the Information Age is all about data, more than any other profound technology accessible today.

Industrial IoT devices are essentially small computers with industrial-grade sensors attached. Cloud computers, like everything else that runs on or is accessible to them, from AI to block-chain to quantum computing, are an important part of IoT infrastructure. Wearables like smart watches, as well as virtual and augmented reality gadgets, fall under the notion of IoT. Autonomous vehicles are just a collection of IoT devices mounted on wheels.

The Internet

The idea of sending data between electronic devices isn't new; Samuel Morse's telegraph, with its alphanumeric encoding of dits and dahs, predates it by about a century. Memorizing Morse code and pounding out long sentences may seem tiresome by today's standards, but it trumps the Pony Express in terms of speed.

The internet eventually enabled a network of research computers to send files containing a succession of ones and zeros, which encoded signals far more effectively than Morse. Over half a century ago, the first internet communication was sent with the basic message "LO" (they intended to enter "Login," but the system crashed halfway through). This unique network protocol is being used by IoT devices for everything from streaming real-time data about foot pressure on a shoe to remotely arranging a taxi without speaking to a human. The protocol turned out to be so broad that it's still in use today, and it's being used in unexpected ways.
Open Systems Interconnection Model

Protocols are the foundation of the internet and the source of much of its strength. Physical, datalink, network, transport, session, presentation, and application are the seven levels of the Open Systems Interconnection model for a network. You can create any type of encoded transmission network using these layers, from sending photos between phones through Bluetooth to Voice Over IP (VOIP).

It all starts in the first layer with physics. We need to physically move some symbols from one point to another, whether this first layer is wired or wireless. In this context, a symbol is a wave function of a physical process such as radio waves or electrons. Over the physical medium, these waves pulse high and low, signifying ones and zeros (also known as binary digits or bits). The second layer, known as data link, takes advantage of this by using the physical transmission medium to reliably bundle symbols into a data frame and send it over the network between two devices.

In the network layer, or third layer, where many devices and networks are connected to each other and how data packets are routed between them, we can handle more than two devices. This layer, for example, is responsible for connecting your iPhone to a mobile tower and, eventually, Netflix.

The transport layer is the fourth layer, and it is responsible for ensuring that data segments are reliably transferred across the network. The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is mostly used for this layer on the internet that we are familiar with, including webpages and streaming videos. Layers three and four define the internet in certain ways, and the protocol is commonly abbreviated as TCP/IP (though other protocols certainly exist). This is an excellent example of how numerous OSI levels may become so intertwined that they blend.

After that, networks begin to feel more substantial. The upper layers are what give meaning to those ones and zeros whizzing around, with the physical ability to transmit bits and the ability to route those bits in a meaningful and reliable way to another device on the other side of the planet. The session layer, which is chock-full of technical jargon, allows you to have long-running, continuous transmissions between nodes, similar to a phone call.

The presentation or syntax layer is the sixth layer, and it's what gives meaning to all of the data blocks we've been storing as binary digits. The presentation layer determines whether a set of bits is an image, video, or emoji. The seventh application layer is where we can use a secure shell (SSH) to connect into a remote command line or view a web page using the hypertext transport protocol (commonly known as HTTP) . Layers one through six are designed for computers, whereas layer seven is designed for both humans and computers.

Network Topology

Network architecture is how our devices are set to communicate with one another, whereas the OSI layers are a generalisation of the components necessary in constructing a robust data network. An industrial data gathering device on a mill machine only has to communicate within the factory's four walls to function. Meanwhile, a barometer instrument in the Arctic may need to send measurements to a base station several miles distant, or even to a satellite orbiting the Earth. Fortunately, based on the range of wireless transmission, there is a well-understood hierarchy of IoT network types.

The nanonetwork, which is the communication of microscopic electrical elements over millimeter ranges, is the smallest range. The next stage is near-field communication, which allows hotel rooms to be unlocked via touchless cards. Body Area Networks (BAN) for wearables and Personal Area Networks (PAN) for your immediate workspace, such as a wireless mouse at work, are two further options. The more popular Local Area Network (LAN) is made up of Wi-Fi-connected devices such as smart TVs at home and laptops at work. Campus Area Networks (CAN), Municipal Area Networks (MAN), and Wide Area Networks (WAN), such as the internationally connected internet, are all more extensive.

A solid rule of thumb to follow when choosing network protocols is to start with your physical range requirements. If it's a wearable, a local field is required; if it's a parking garage IoT, a broad area may be required. Unless there's a technical reason (power use, data rate, range, etc.) to land on a less prevalent network, aim for the most mainstream protocols (NFC, Wi-Fi) (Neul or LoraWAN). Next, unless there's an economic or technical reason why a proprietary protocol is better suited to your needs, lean toward open protocols (Thread or ZigBee).

Transducers, Computers and Power supplies

The physical components that make up "things" in the IoT world can be broken down in a variety of ways, however focusing on the following three can be a useful division: transducers, computers, and power supply.

Sensors and actuators are the two types of transducers. Sensors perceive the world around them, as their name implies. Your nerves are sensors that turn diverse data, such as light into color or heat into feeling, into impulses that your brain can understand. Digital sensors work in a similar fashion to analogue sensors, except they transform analogue signals into digital codes that a computer can comprehend.

The Apple Watch includes a compass, global navigation, altimeter, electrical and optical cardiac sensors, accelerometer, gyroscope, ambient light sensor, microphone, and pressure sensor, among other analogue and digital sensors. The majority of these sensors, such as the compass, accelerometer, and gyroscope, are small combo chips. Or, in the case of worldwide navigation, a single chip can handle various systems such as GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and QZSS. From weather sensors to smart home scales, IoT devices are frequently used to collect data. Sensors that are connected to the internet are the fundamental components of these gadgets.

Actuators are the polar opposite of sensors in many aspects. While sensors are in charge of computer input, actuators are in charge of how a computing device interacts with the outside world. Inputs are handled by sensors, while outputs are handled by actuators. Few IoT devices exist just as actuators.

IoT gadgets are nothing more than small computers. Boring old machines with microprocessors for computing, RAM for memory, NAND flash for longer-term storage, and a Wi-Fi shield for data transmission. Although not all of these components are required, they are popular in IoT computers. The majority of IoT computer hardware has been reduced to inconceivable sizes, drastically lowering power consumption.

The Apple Watch in 2019 had an S5 chip with a 64-bit dual-core processor as well as W3 chips. In addition to calculation, they were also in charge of wireless data transfer, which enabled cellular phone conversations. Whether an IoT device mainly relies on sensors to read the world or actuators to interact with it, a microcontroller is a component that all IoT devices have in common. Even passive RFID tags have a chip in them for the most basic processing.

Batteries are large, heavy, and slow to improve in comparison to other computing components such as CPUs. When it comes to IoT devices, the majority of the decisions you'll have to make are linked to reducing power usage and, as a result, reducing battery size and charging requirements. Despite the limitations of batteries, the industry has been able to boost power via ingenuity and invention.

Smart will become the new normal

The internet of things will completely transform how humans interact with the world in the future. We'll be unwilling to accept dumb things once we've grown accustomed to clever ones, and once cost is no longer an issue. Basic refrigerators will go the way of hand-crank car windows and TV knobs as smart becomes the new normal. Much of our world will be intelligible, controllable, and automatable at even deeper levels thanks to wearables, smart homes, and offices.

Anything that begins with the word "smart" is almost certainly IoT, but things can grow even smarter. While AI algorithms have been predicting weather and curating personalized media for years, it's a far less direct experience than conversing with Alexa on an Amazon Echo IoT speaker. With a large number of IoT devices interacting with many components of an environment, it will become the frontline technology of Microsoft's "intelligent edge," as Satya Nadella describes it. It's one thing for it to intelligently restructure a garment in anticipation of rain.

IoT adoption is a huge step toward AI for objects and, eventually, full-fledged ubiquitous computing.

We've become accustomed to a world where weather forecasts are always available on our cellphones. In order to fulfil such needs and expectations, a global network of IoT sensors is required. We still have higher ambitions, such as saving endangered species, reducing rain forest damage, and preventing pollution of our water supply. Pure donut economics. Using the Internet of Things, everybody may play a significant role in assisting humanity in living in harmony with our environment and ensuring that we prosper within acceptable limits.

The realization of many IoT aspirations is creating a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for businesses and ambitious individuals. IoT alone, out of all the deep tech in this book, is estimated to bring $15 trillion to yearly global gross domestic product in 2030, give or take a couple trillion. More will be required as a result of this global network. More precision, granularity, and accuracy. More opportunities. More IoT.

There's still much to do in the realm IoT. If you are a researcher in the field of IoT you are at the right place.

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